Further simulation testing in CoopMAC-U for underwater acoustic sensor networks


  • Muhammad Syirajuddin S. State Polytechnic of Malang
  • Nurul Hidayati State Polytechnic of Malang
  • Rieke Adriati Wijayanti State Polytechnic of Malang
  • Ahmad Wilda Yulianto
  • Dianthy Marya




Acoustic Network, Cooperative, Media Access Control Protocol, Underwater, Wireless Sensor Network


In order for underwater wireless sensor networks to communicate more efficiently, MAC protocols are needed to control the use of acoustic channels. With the high propagation delay and the limited bandwidth available on the acoustic channel, a specially designed MAC protocol is needed for UWASN (Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks). In this research, the adaptation of Cooperative MAC for underwater (CoopMAC-U) will be further studied to test the protocol performance. In the previous research, CoopMAC-U was simulated yet the fairness of the transmission was not simulated and tested. In this research, CoopMAC-U will be studied further and improved. The simulation result shows that the Improved CoopMAC-U protocol produces better-normalized throughput than the initial version of CoopMAC-U. The protocol is also proven that it is backward compatible between conventional mode and cooperative mode. For offered load greater than 0.2, both the initial version of CoopMAC-U and the Improved CoopMAC-U result in stagnant normalized throughputs but the improved ones double the value of the initial version.


X. Guo, M. R. Frater dan M. J. Ryan, “Design of a Propagation-delay-tolerant MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks,” Oceanic Engineering, IEEE Journal of, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 170-180, 2009.

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompilo dan T. Melodia, “Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks: Research Challenges.,” Ad hoc networks, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 257-279, 2005.

P. Wang, F. Wei, L. Zhang and V. O. Li, "Asynchronous Cooperative Transmission in Underwater Acoustic Networks," in Underwater Technology (UT), 2011 IEEE Symposium on and 2011 Workshop on Scientific Use of Submarine Cables and Related Technologies (SSC), 2011.

F. T. Ulaby, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics., Prentice Hall, 1995.

P. C. Etter, Underwater Acoustic Modeling and Simulation, CRC Press, 2013.

M. Stojanovic and J. Preisig, "Underwater Acoustic Communication Channels: Propagation Models and Statistical Characterization," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 84-89, 2009.

M. S. Suja'i, Endroyono and Wirawan, "Protokol CoopMAC-U Untuk Jaringan Sensor Akustik Bawah Air," in SENIATI, Malang, 2016.

H.-H. Ng, W.-S. Soh and M. Motani, "MACA-U : A Media Access Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Networks," in Global Telecommunications Conference, 2008. IEEE GLOBECOM 2008. IEEE, 2008.

Y. W. P. Hong, C. C. J. Kuo and W.-J. Huang, Cooperative Communications and Networking, Springer, 2010.

T. Cinar and M. B. Orencik, "An Underwater Acoustic Channel Model Using Ray Tracing in ns-2," in Wireless Days (WD), 2009 2nd IFIP, Paris, 2009.

A. F. Harris III and M. Zorzi, "Modelling the Underwater Acoustic Channel in ns2," in {Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Performance evaluation methodologies and tools, 2007.

A. Sehgal, I. Tumar and J. Schonwalder, "Aquatools: An Underwater Acoustic Networking Simulation Toolkit," in IEEE, Oceans, Sydney, Australia May, 2010.

R. J. Urick, Principles of Underwater Sound, McGraw-Hill, 1983.

J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communication, McGraw-Hill Education, 2007.

W. Lin, E. Cheng and F. Yuan, "A MACA-based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks," Jurnal of Communications, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 179, 2011.




How to Cite

M. Syirajuddin S., N. Hidayati, R. Adriati Wijayanti, A. Wilda Yulianto, and D. Marya, “Further simulation testing in CoopMAC-U for underwater acoustic sensor networks”, Jartel, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 71-80, Mar. 2023.